Letter to the Editor:
Forty years ago, Hispanic and Asian populations remained rooted in cities like Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco while the blacks were continuing their old move out of the South toward cities in the North and West.
Important congressional legislation, including the Immigration and Nationality Act and landmark civil rights laws, helped alter these dynamics. Similarly, the social and geographic mobility of consequent generations of African Americans resulted from the Civil Rights legislation of the s.
Black migration began to return to the South when more blacks entered the middle class and as images of the isolated south declined. Other factors that have compelled others to migrate from their home countries include; political persecution, political instability, and religious and ethnic discrimination.
For instance, millions of Haitians, Colombians, Sudanese, and Cubans immigrants look for political refuge in the United States. The potential costs of diversity are apparent. Policies, which are counterproductive and odious for the public, are a product of racism, prejudices, and conflict of preferences.
In addition, political unrest or even civil wars can result from the oppression of minorities. However, a diverse ethnic mix also causes diversity in experiences, cultures, and abilities that may be useful and may produce creativity and innovation.
Poor policy management is common in the sectioned societies, which can create more politico-economic challenges than homogenous ones. The development of political power is highly affected by the residential isolation.
Racially and ethnically defined neighborhoods have influenced their voting power to assist elect local, county and state representatives, many of whom are people of color. A recent study indicates that local politics exaggerate these disadvantages.
For example, diverse U. Moreover, there is low level of funding of schools by the U.
There is increased competition for scarce resources in persons living near members of another racial group leading to reduced tolerance. People are less likely to benefit from public goods that they share with other groups. The whites in a varied locality may see public spending as a barrier to their advantages.
As the local population changes, so too might views of who gains from local spending.Immigration and Ethnic and Racial Inequality in the United States The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters Citation Waters, Mary C., and Karl Eschbach.
Immigration and ethnic and racial inequality in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology The increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the United States will create both challenges and opportunities for U.S.
schools and businesses in the future. The magnitude of these numbers and their geographic location will be important factors to consider as we prepare for the 21st century. Click here to download the Foundation Discussion Starters.. There are numerous reports available to provide in-depth data about various demographics, as well as additional rationale and ways to collect and use racial/ethnic data in relationship to foundation leadership and grantmaking.
based on ethnic and racial background have played a powerful role in shaping both interaction and opportunity in the United States.
One of the factors shaping opportunity is.. access to valued material, social, and cultural resources, a factor strongly influenced by the . The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future.
United States cannot be understood without considering the implications dence on racial/ethnic diversity in the states, census data were drawn on to create two major racial/ethnic categories measures or indicators of racial/ethnic diversity and states’ public policies.