See Article History Alternative Titles: A preliminary parliament Vorparlament met in Frankfurt am Main in March at the instigation of liberal leaders from all the German states including Austriaand it called for the election of a national assembly Nationalversammlung. The elections were duly held, though the electoral laws and methods varied considerably from state to state, and on May 18 the national assembly met in the Church of St.
Between andthe aims of German nationalists and the ambitions of Prussia were not constant, but rather changed in response to the situation of the time.
German nationalists in the early 19th century wished to unite all German-speaking areas into one nation, and were relatively unconcerned about areas outside Germany, whilst their lateth and earlyth century counterparts — after Germany had been unified — sought to expand German hegemony and influence both in Europe and overseas, with the ultimate aim of making Germany the most powerful nation in the world.
German nationalists also aimed to create an economically unified and prosperous Germany, seeing it as a step towards eventual political unification as well as improving their lives.
Overall, the aims of German nationalists were sometimes the same as, or linked to, Prussian ambitions, allowing both parties to work together towards them; however, conflict between the aims of German nationalists and Prussian ambitions were frequent.
Economically, the aims of German nationalists often coincided with Prussian ambitions, although there were some differences. The reforms of the Napoleonic era, such as the abolition of serfdom and feudalism, the dismantling of internal tariffs and trade barriers, and the nationalisation of Church land, were on the whole supported by the liberal German nationalists although at the time there were not many, as nationalism had not yet taken root in Germany.
Even after the War of Liberation, many of the changes instated by Napoleonic puppets or allied regimes remained in place, as they were proven to be economically more effective.
The aims of German nationalists — to liberalise and modernise the moribund German economies, which still operated under a medieval guild-based model in — were therefore supported by Prussian ambitions to reform and recapture their old lands in this case; the two were even more closely linked by the economic reforms pursued by the Kingdom of Westphalia, which returned to Prussia after the fall of Napoleon with a significantly streamlined and productive economy, and by their shared opposition to the Continental System.
The economic aims of German nationalists were also supported by Prussian ambitions during the years of the German Confederation, with regard to the creation and role of the Zollverein in The Zollverein provided a framework for economic integration of the German states — something supported by German nationalists, many of whom hoped that economic integration would lead to political union.
Meanwhile, Prussian ambitions to establish a clear link between the two halves of their territory and to guarantee trade between East and West Prussia were one of the original reasons for the creation of the trading bloc which became the Zollverein; in addition to this, several Prussian ministers believed that the Zollverein would be a way of ensuring Prussian economic leadership of the German Confederation, and of making Prussia more of a counterweight to Austria.
However, it was eventually to be seen that the Zollverein did not function as a tool for effectively extending Prussian political influence to other German states; many Zollverein members sided with Austria in the Austro-Prussian War, whilst states retained some amount of economic autonomy particularly in the south of Germany.
It could also be argued that the Zollverein failed to live up to the hopes of German nationalists; despite the economic links provided by the Zollverein, and the resultant growing pan-German consciousness, the attempts of the Frankfurt Parliament to formally unify Germany in failed.
Nonetheless, the aims of liberal nationalists to ensure free trade and market were supported by the Zollverein, and continued to be even after the failure of Bismarck therefore allowed the ambitions of the upper echelons of Prussian society — although not formally Prussia itself — to undermine the aims of liberal German nationalists.
The converse — German nationalists undermining Prussia — was seen in the economic sphere with the growth of Weltpolitik in the s and s, and the economic rationale for it. German nationalists advocated the founding of an overseas empire, and the establishing of colonies, on the grounds that it would allow Germany to become economically self-sufficient and provide it with all necessary raw materials; however, this both threatened to undermine the agricultural dominance of the Junkers, and had no link to Prussian ambitions, which were primarily Eurocentric.
Weltpolitik could thus be understood as the product of German nationalism and its wishes for Germany to become the strongest nation in the world or at least to reach the level of France and Britainand ran entirely contrary to Prussian ambitions of centralising power and focusing on the heartland.
An example of the coinciding aims of German nationalists and Prussian ambitions was seen with the massive expansion of German industrial power in the s and s, especially concerning the building of railways in Germany and in other nations. Prussian ambitions of economic supremacy were greatly strengthened by this, as the railway companies were generally Prussian in origin, whilst the steel and coal industries of the Prussian Rhineland would benefit from the increased demand.
Meanwhile, German nationalists supported the building of railways — especially in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, such as the Berlin-Baghdad Railway — as they saw in it an expansion and widening of German influence.
The dominating military theories of the time stressed the importance of railways as an indicator and supporter of political power and ultimately power on the ground; German nationalists therefore saw the expansion of German-built railways as a means of increasing the power of the nation.
Another way in which German and Prussian economic aims converged was with German industrial power throughout the First World War, and the military-industrial complex which developed — militant German nationalists, who sought to increase the power of the army in order to defeat Britain, France, and Russia, demanded more powerful weaponry and more of it; this benefitted Prussian industrialists such as Krupp, who were hugely enriched by the war.The Napoleonic invasions of central Europe reinforced German nationalism.
The last part of the war against Napoleon was known as the War of Liberation in Germany. There had never been a united German state, but Germans saw what power a united France had achieved. Jul 02, · Overall, the aims of German nationalists were sometimes the same as, or linked to, Prussian ambitions, allowing both parties to work together towards them; however, conflict between the aims of German nationalists and Prussian ambitions were frequent.
In sum, Hitler’s National Socialism, as described in the document and as enacted through the s, was essentially the product of German nationalism and progressive socialism, combined with an anti-Semitism that was fundamentally concerned with enacting a program that would limit Jewish influence, particularly in the media, and .
The Frankfurt Parliament (German: Frankfurter Nationalversammlung, literally Frankfurt National Assembly) was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May (see German federal election, ). The session was held from 18 May to 31 May , in the Paulskirche at Frankfurt am Main.
Attempts to discuss the profound and life-giving character of Adolf Hitler’s National Socialism often get sidetracked and bogged down in ridiculous and ill-informed debates concerning the conduct of German military operations during the Second World War – as though that subject were more important than our survival as a race!
Feb 12, · CONCLUSION = Prussian ambitions frequently undermined the domestic and ideological aims of German nationalists; however, from the s onwards, a strong tendency began to emerge within German nationalism to side with Prussia and exemplify Prussia as the forerunner and father of the nation, due to Prussia’s role in uniting Germany, showing a synthesis between German nationalism .