The Special Transportation Fund is a portion of state money set aside only for transportation. In theory this sounds great. We pay taxes on gas, which we use to drive all over the roads, and those taxes help pay to fix the roads back up.
Etymology[ edit ] "Gasoline" is a North American word that refers to fuel for automobiles. The Oxford English Dictionary dates its first recorded use to when it was spelled "gasolene".
The term "gasoline" was first used in North America in On 27 Novemberthe British publisher, coffee merchant and social campaigner John Cassell placed an advertisement in The Times of London: The Patent Cazeline Oil, safe, economical, and brilliant … possesses all the requisites which have so long been desired as a means of powerful artificial light.
Cassell discovered that a shopkeeper in Dublin named Samuel Boyd was selling counterfeit cazeline and wrote to him to ask him to stop. Carless registered a number of alternative names for the product, but "petrol" nonetheless became the common term for the fuel in the British Commonwealth.
When Carless was denied a trademark on "petrol" in the s, its competitors switched to the more popular name "petrol". However, "motor spirit" had already made its way into laws and regulations, so the term remains in How gasoline prices work as a formal name for petrol.
Shortening gasoline to gas, which happens often, causes confusion with various forms of gaseous products also used as automotive fuel for example, compressed natural gas CNGliquefied natural gas LNG and liquefied petroleum gas LPG. In many countries, gasoline has a colloquial name derived from that of the chemical benzene e.
Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay use the colloquial name nafta derived from that of the chemical naphtha. The fuel for these early engines was a relatively volatile hydrocarbon obtained from coal gas. The development of a "spray nozzle" carburetor enabled the use of less volatile fuels.
Further improvements in engine efficiency were attempted at higher compression ratiosbut early attempts were blocked by the premature explosion of fuel, known as knocking.
Inthe Shukhov cracking process became the world's first commercial method to break down heavier hydrocarbons in crude oil to increase the percentage of lighter products compared to simple distillation.
Prior to World War One, Britain was the world's greatest industrial power and depended on its navy to protect the shipping of raw materials from its colonies.
Germany was also industrializing and, like Britain, lacked many natural resources which had to be shipped to the home country. By the s, Germany began to pursue a policy of global prominence and began building a navy to compete with Britain's. Coal was the fuel that powered their navies. Though both Britain and Germany had natural coal reserves, new developments in oil as a fuel for ships changed the situation.
Coal-powered ships were a tactical weakness because the process of loading coal was extremely slow and dirty and left the ship completely vulnerable to attack, and unreliable supplies of coal at international ports made long-distance voyages impractical. The advantages of petroleum oil soon found the navies of the world converting to oil, but Britain and Germany had very few domestic oil reserves.
During the early period of gasoline engine development, aircraft were forced to use motor vehicle gasoline since aviation gasoline did not yet exist. These early fuels were termed "straight-run" gasolines and were byproducts from the distillation of a single crude oil to produce kerosenewhich was the principal product sought for burning in kerosene lamps.
Gasoline production would not surpass kerosene production until The earliest straight-run gasolines were the result of distilling eastern crude oils and there was no mixing of distillates from different crudes.
The composition of these early fuels was unknown and the quality varied greatly as crude oils from different oil fields emerged in different mixtures of hydrocarbons in different ratios. The engine effects produced by abnormal combustion engine knocking and pre-ignition due to inferior fuels had not yet been identified, and as a result there was no rating of gasoline in terms of its resistance to abnormal combustion.
These would often be used in aircraft engines. Byincreased automobile production and the resultant increase in gasoline consumption produced a greater demand for gasoline.
Also, the growing electrification of lighting produced a drop in kerosene demand, creating a supply problem. It appeared that the burgeoning oil industry would be trapped into over-producing kerosene and under-producing gasoline since simple distillation could not alter the ratio of the two products from any given crude.
The solution appeared in when the development of the Burton process allowed thermal cracking of crude oils, which increased the percent yield of gasoline from the heavier hydrocarbons. This was combined with expansion of foreign markets for the export of surplus kerosene which domestic markets no longer needed.
These new thermally "cracked" gasolines were believed to have no harmful effects and would be added to straight-run gasolines. As late as JuneStandard Oil the largest refiner of crude oil in the United States at the time stated that the most important property of a gasoline was its volatility.
When the United States entered the war in Aprilthe U.
Later flight tests conducted in showed that an octane reduction of 13 points from down to 87 octane decreased engine performance by 20 percent and increased take-off distance by 45 percent. Army Signal Corps and a general survey concluded that no reliable data existed for the proper fuels for aircraft."In the short run, when gas prices go up it, people have only a limited ability to significantly change how much gasoline they consume.
Because they have the car they have, they live where they do, they work where they do, so they might be able to cut back on discretionary travel a little bit, but probably the biggest factor is changes in other expenditures," Morris said.
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Apr 19, · A sign displaying the price of gasoline per gallon is seen at a BP gas station as reports indicate that the price of gas continues to rise.
AAA forecasts the national gas price average will be as. Synthetic fuel or synfuel is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas..
Common methods for manufacturing synthetic fuels include the Fischer Tropsch conversion, methanol to gasoline conversion, or direct.
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