Translated by John W. The Loeb Classical Library.
The concept of the welfare state is comparatively of recent origin. It came into prominence mainly after the Second World War. Its ideals and policies, popular in recent times are followed by a number of countries in the world. The general masses of people suffered seriously on account of increasing poverty, inequality, economic uncertainty, unemployment etc.
During this century, consequently their condition was deplorable, the immense suffering experienced by people in general brought about a very great change in the idea of state functions. They realised at this stage that the Laissez Faire principles in relations to state functions would not be effective any longer.
Henceforth, the state could not act as a police force maintaining law and order only. These police functions cannot serve the purposes of modern industrial society.
At this stage the welfare state came into being to solve the problems of people and relieve their suffering. The main reason for the rise of the welfare state was to recover from the devastation caused by the Second World War.
It was thought that the state, instead of being a police state should be an agency for promoting the welfare of people as a whose and for their mental, physical and moral development. At present, many countries of the world including India, are following the policies of the welfare state.
The welfare activity undertaken by welfare states varies from country to country not only in detail but also in emphasis, what does the concept of welfare state means then? Definitions of welfare state There are differences of opinion on the concept of a welfare state among writers who have interpreted it differently.
Their interpretations are stated below. The object of social insurance is to provide economic security to the citizens, social insurance eliminates risk arising from accidents, unemployment, poverty in old age etc.
Functions of welfare state A welfare state in addition to the general functions of state discussed else where, performs the following functions. Secondly it takes care of old, invalid and sick people providing them financial assistance in the form of allowance, pension, relief etc.
The unemployed receive unemployment from the state. In the third place it is the duty of the welfare state to provide opportunities for education to all its citizens and to make education free and compulsory up to a certain standard.
Furthermore the state should establish and maintain a large number of institutions for general and technical education. These responsibilities are not exhaustive, they are indicative of the function which the state performs for the general well-being of people.
However, the welfare state has wider implications than the ones we have discussed. The development activities which a welfare state must undertake include the development of agriculture and industry, irrigation facilities, co-operative farming, the management of basic industry, Railways, Road Transport, Post and Telegraph, supply of electricity, gas water, the Civil Aviation, insurance and other public utility services.The goal of Sudoku is to fill in a 9×9 grid with digits so that each column, row, and 3×3 section contain the numbers between 1 to 9.
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Hayek, Austrian-born British economist noted for his criticisms of the Keynesian welfare state and of totalitarian socialism. In he shared the Nobel Prize for Economics with Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal.
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