Advertisement In Brief The vast majority of the research on genetically modified GM crops suggests that they are safe to eat and that they have the potential to feed millions of people worldwide who currently go hungry. Yet not all criticisms of GM are so easily rejected, and pro-GM scientists are often dismissive and even unscientific in their rejection of the counterevidence.
Transgenics refers to those specific genetic engineering processes that remove genetic material from one species of plant or animal and add it to a different species.
Due to the high similarity in genetic sequences for proteins among species, transgenic organisms are able to effectively assimilate and express these trans-genes.
The mule is a common example of a transgenic organism created when a horse and a donkey mate and produce offspring. Image courtesy Wade B. Worthen, Furman University, Biology Department. Transgenics involves removing genetic material from one species and adding it to another.
The process of creating a transgene begins by isolating the gene of interest from a donor organism or selecting for purchase any of the thousands of known genes from massive online genomic databases. Once the gene is obtained, it is usually altered so it can function more effectively or be expressed more readily in the host organism.
A transgenic organism is further defined as one that contains a transgene introduced by technological methods rather than through selective breeding. Hybrids are transgenic organisms created when reproductive cells from two species combine to form a single embryo e.
Current Developments Figure 2: Golden rice right compared to white rice. By incorporating a human protein into bananas, potatoes, and tomatoes, researchers have been able to successfully create edible vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, and rotavirus, the latter of which can cause fatal bouts of diarrhea.
One of the proposed goals is to create trees that could illuminate streets and pathways, thereby saving energy and reducing our dependence upon limited energy resources; however, the public release of such plants has sparked a heated debate centered around potential environmental impacts of introducing highly genetically engineered plants into natural ecosystems.
The fiber artificially created from this silk protein has several potentially valuable uses, such as making lightweight, strong, yet supple bulletproof vests.
Other industrial and medical applications include stronger automotive and aerospace components, stronger and more biodegradable sutures, and bioshields, which can protect military personnel and first responders from chemical threats such as sarin gas.
Pigs may serve as a valuable source of organs and cells for transplantation into humans. Genetic engineering and transgenic combinations represent a significant aspect of current biotechnology research. Xenotransplantation, or the transplantation of living tissues or organs from one species to another, is often seen as a potential way to alleviate the shortage of human hearts and kidneys.
Pigs have a similar physiology and organ size, making porcine pig organs ideal candidates for transplantation into human recipients. Genetic manipulation of stem cells now includes the growth of tissues on a scaffolding, or a 3-D printer, which then can be used as a temporary skin substitute for healing wounds or burns.
Tissue engineering is becoming a viable alternative in procedures that involve replacement of cartilage, heart valves, cerebrospinal shunts, and other organs. Transgenics and genetic engineering also present a variety of ethical considerations that span social, as well as extrinsic and intrinsic, concerns.
Ethical Issues Transgenic biotechnology presents an exciting range of possibilities, from feeding the hungry to preventing and treating diseases; however, these promises are not without potential peril.
Some of the issues that need to be considered are the following:Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
|Recent Opinions||Although the atrocious Nazi experiments performed in the name of science are 70 years behind us, science continues to cross new boundaries.|
|Ten Reasons Evolution is Wrong||Share via Email This article is over 2 years old Nobel laureate David Baltimore of CalTech speaks at the National Academy of Sciences international summit on the safety and ethics of human gene editing. At issue are tools to edit precisely genes inside living cells, finding specific sections of DNA to slice and repair or replace, much like a biological version of cut-and-paste software.|
|Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering - Conserve Energy Future||February 18, Would this change mean empowering parents to give their children the best start possible?|
|The President's Council on Bioethics: What's Wrong With Enhancement?||In other words, it is the process of adding or modifying DNA in an organism to bring about great deal of transformation. We feared that soon we would be interfering with nature, trying to play God and cheat him out of his chance to decide whether we were blonde or dark haired, whether we had blue or bright green eyes or even how intelligent we were.|
The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology..
Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong.
Genetic Engineering Debate: Are There Lines We Shouldn't Cross? By Jessica Erickson | Feb. 7, The relationship between ethics and science has had a long, complicated history. Scientists debate ethics of human gene editing at international summit the prospect of one day performing genetic engineering that goes far beyond helping one sick person – and could pass.
The Effects of Genetic Engineering on Agriculture - Genetic engineering is a way in which specific genes for an animal or plant can be extracted, and reproduced to form a new animal or plant.
Additionally, genetically engineering a person to do a certain task well, as would most definitely be the case in many cases, pressures the person to do that task, robbing them of free will.
In conclusion, even well-intentioned genetic engineering can have adverse effects that make it immoral to practice for the purpose of creating a perfect human.
By Lisa Landon on Wednesday, August 19, - pm. Call your local school district's special education office and ask for "Early Intervention Resources", ie. state agencies that provide services and funding for children under 3 years old who are "at risk" of developmental delays.