Received Sep 13; Accepted Dec 7.
Today's Tattoos What is the earliest evidence of tattoos? In terms of tattoos on actual bodies, the earliest known examples were for a long time Egyptian and were present on several female mummies dated to c.
But following the more recent discovery of the Iceman from the area of the Italian-Austrian border in and his tattoo patterns, this date has been pushed back a further thousand years when he was carbon-dated at around 5, years old.
Can you describe the tattoos on the Iceman and their significance? Following discussions with my colleague Professor Don Brothwell of the University of York, one of the specialists who examined him, the distribution of the tattooed dots and small crosses on his lower spine and right knee and ankle joints correspond to areas of strain-induced degeneration, with the suggestion that they may have been applied to alleviate joint pain and were therefore essentially therapeutic.
This would also explain their somewhat 'random' distribution in areas of the body which would not have been that easy to display had they been applied as a form of status marker. What is the evidence that ancient Egyptians had tattoos? There's certainly evidence that women had tattoos on their bodies and limbs from figurines c.
Also small bronze implements identified as tattooing tools were discovered at the town site of Gurob in northern Egypt and dated to c. And then, of course, there are the mummies with tattoos, from the three women already mentioned and dated to c.
What function did these tattoos serve? Who got them and why? Because this seemed to be an exclusively female practice in ancient Egypt, mummies found with tattoos were usually dismissed by the male excavators who seemed to assume the women were of "dubious status," described in some cases as "dancing girls.
And although it has long been assumed that such tattoos were the mark of prostitutes or were meant to protect the women against sexually transmitted diseases, I personally believe that the tattooing of ancient Egyptian women had a therapeutic role and functioned as a permanent form of amulet during the very difficult time of pregnancy and birth.
This is supported by the pattern of distribution, largely around the abdomen, on top of the thighs and the breasts, and would also explain the specific types of designs, in particular the net-like distribution of dots applied over the abdomen.
During pregnancy, this specific pattern would expand in a protective fashion in the same way bead nets were placed over wrapped mummies to protect them and "keep everything in. This would ultimately explain tattoos as a purely female custom. Who made the tattoos?
Although we have no explicit written evidence in the case of ancient Egypt, it may well be that the older women of a community would create the tattoos for the younger women, as happened in 19th-century Egypt and happens in some parts of the world today.
What instruments did they use? It is possible that an implement best described as a sharp point set in a wooden handle, dated to c. Petrie at the site of Abydos may have been used to create tattoos.
Petrie also found the aforementioned set of small bronze instruments c. If tied together in a bunch, they would provide repeated patterns of multiple dots. These instruments are also remarkably similar to much later tattooing implements used in 19th-century Egypt. The English writer William Lane observed, "the operation is performed with several needles generally seven tied together:Though we have a comprehensive site on the Pyramids of Egypt, this is a summary overview for those who would like to digest just a little less information..
The Great Pyramids of Giza are some of the most famous manmade objects in the world, and they have been famous since ancient times. In fact, the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) is the only "Wonder of the Ancient .
Home › Ancient History Any discussion or examination of what the pyramids were meant to symbolize must begin with the ancient Egyptian concept of divine kingship and how that related to Egyptian religion. Read the rest of the article at srmvision.com In this brief introduction to the subject of Egyptian mythology, the author has given a lot of thought to the context of the subject.
There is a useful historical timeline which allows the listener to follow the complexities of Egyptian history and locate the mythology within the development of the srmvision.coms: Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as the post-classical history.
The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of time or the academic discipline. In this brief introduction to the subject of Egyptian Mythology the author has given a lot of thought to the context of the subject.
This makes it an easy read. There is a useful Historical Timeline which allows the reader to follow the complexities of Egyptian history and locate the mythology within the development of Reviews: The length in defined earth units of the Royal Egyptian Cubit was chosen to be numerically the same as the number of arc seconds in the earth radius at a nominal ratio of / The Intelligence To say that we have in the Egyptian Royal Cubit an uncanny mathematical and geodetic display is .